Do self-help books work? The science of personal development

Self-help books are a billion-dollar industry, driven by our continuous drive for psychological wellbeing and self-improvement.

But do they actually work and is there any research to prove their effectiveness? In this article, we’ll examine the science of personal development and see if there’s any evidence to support the use of self-help books in achieving your goals.

TLDR – The short summary is that while there is weak evidence to suggest that unsupervised reading of self-help is effective, bibliotherapy or guided reading combined with therapy, might be a low-cost efficacious intervention for mental health.

If you’re interested to learn more, let’s dive in. By way of introduction, let’s investigate the reasons why the demand for this genre is so high.

Why are self-help books so popular?

Self-help books are popular for a number of reasons.

Firstly, they provide hope. They tell readers that it is possible to change their lives for the better. Often the material provides the inspiration and motivation required for readers to engage in serious behaviour change.

Secondly, they offer specific tools and strategies on how to improve your life. This knowledge is often provided by subject matter experts who have personally experienced the issues you’re experiencing or by academics, who’ve conducted extensive research on the topic and share their findings for public consumption.

Thirdly, self-help books are easy to read and understand. They’re usually written in a clear and concise manner, providing actionable steps to break complex, ambiguous topics up into manageable steps.


The use of books as a form of therapy has been around for centuries. Bibliotherapy dates back to ancient Greece and perhaps even further back to ancient Egypt, where King Ramses II is said to have had an inscription over the entrance to his library, reading,

“The house of healing for the soul”

Since then, the practice has been adopted by psychologists and psychiatrists all over the world as a way to help people deal with a wide range of mental health issues.

Bibliotherapy can take many different forms, but the basic premise is always the same: using books to help people heal.

The therapist may recommend a specific book or type of book for the patient to read, or they may simply encourage the patient to read more for its many health and wellbeing benefits, as a way to cope with their problems.

Bibliotherapy has become a popular approach in mental health treatment for a number of reasons.

  • First, it is a relatively low-cost intervention that can be easily implemented by trained professionals. and with the ease of access of the treatment, clients can engage in the activity remotely.
  • Second, bibliotherapy has been used as a treatment for a wide range of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • Third, bibliotherapy can be used in conjunction with other forms of treatment, such as medication and therapy, to provide a comprehensive approach to mental health care.

Bibliotherapy can be an effective treatment for mental health conditions, but it is not a panacea, and more research is needed. It is important to remember that the technique is not a replacement for traditional forms of mental health care, such as medication and therapy.

Rather, it should be used as a complementary addition to these other treatments. It’s a tool that can be used to help people heal, but only one part of the larger puzzle of mental health treatment.

If you’re struggling with mental health issues, be sure to consult a qualified practitioner for help. For other personal development goals, bibliotherapy may be an important asset in encouraging behaviour change and achieving your goals. We’ll see why shortly.

The truth about self-help books

Due to the popularity of self-help books, research has been carried out on the topic.

Starker, in a survey of 121 psychologists in urban areas, found that the attitudes of clinical professionals towards self-help material was generally positive and they that these clinicians tended to recommend books to their clients.

This is supported by the fact that there is some evidence supporting their use for specific problems, with this paper proposing that unguided self-help can produce enduring improvement for individuals with social anxiety disorder.

Other studies, however, weren’t as favourable in their analysis of the genre, suggesting that the very commercialisation of the industry is part of the problem, along with exaggerated claims of their effectiveness.

The treatment of specific issues was also called into question. This study found that self-help for the specific application of relieving depression provided little direct evidence of supporting its use.

That said, it seems that rather than completely unguided self-help, bibliotherapy, with its additional guidance, is a more promising intervention, with researchers stating that it could provide a useful adjunctive treatment for therapists.

Further study shows that students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy to assist problem-solving, while additional proposals suggest that,

“Self-help books have the potential to provide a valuable service to people with depression, but further work is necessary to develop them.”

So, if you’re considering reading a self-help book, bear in mind that there are limitations to randomly choosing books and expecting results.

For a greater likelihood of success, pick a book that is relevant to your specific needs or combine reading with therapeutic guidance in the form of bibliotherapy.

And, as with anything else, don’t expect miracles. Change takes time and effort. But if you’re willing to put in the work, a self-help book might be a valuable tool in your journey towards personal growth and development.

Key takeaways:

  • Self-help books are popular because they provide hope, specific tools, and are easy to read.
  • There is little scientific evidence to show that self-help books are effective alone, but more promising research that bibliotherapy might help.
  • If you’re considering reading a self-help book, be sure to pick one that is relevant to your specific needs.

What is wrong with self-help?

Self-help books are increasingly visible, meeting growing demand, with new titles appearing on store shelves every day. Promising to deliver everything from happiness to success, these books offer simple solutions to complex problems.

Although self-help via bibliotherapy might be an effective intervention in certain circumstances, there are dangers in relying exclusively on self-help books to address your personal issues.

While self-help books can be helpful resources, it is important to be aware of the dangers of relying too heavily on them. One of the main issues is that self-help books often provide a one-size-fits-all approach to complex problems, which can lead to a feeling of inadequacy if the reader doesn’t see results immediately.

Additionally, self-help books can sometimes give the impression that there is a simple solution to every problem. In reality, however, many personal issues are nuanced and may require professional help to resolve. This is not to say that self-help books are entirely useless. They can be helpful in providing motivation and inspiration, and they may offer some useful tips. But when it comes to actually solving problems, some readers may feel that they fall short.

Finally, self-help books are often written by individuals who might not be qualified to offer advice on complex psychological issues. For these reasons, it is important to vet and verify the credentials of the author. You can either read online reviews from other readers or consult with a mental health professional for further guidance.

Some self-help books that actually work (in my humble opinion!)

Obviously, the impact of self-help books and the specific effectiveness of self-prescribed bibliotherapy differs from person to person and your mileage may vary.

However, I’ve found these titles to be particularly effective in changing the way I think about personal development and providing a positive force in my personal growth.

1. Atomic Habits by James Clear

One of the most popular self-help books out there. It provides readers with a step-by-step guide to developing good habits and breaking bad ones. The book is full of useful tips and tricks that can help you make small changes in your life that will have a big impact in the long run.

If you’re looking for a self-help book that will actually help you make changes in your life, Atomic Habits is a great choice. However, it’s important to remember that no book can give you the motivation to change. You have to be willing to put in the work yourself. But if you’re ready to make progress, Atomic Habits can provide the tools you need to get started.

Read my summary of the book here.

2. Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman

Thinking Fast and Slow is a book by Daniel Kahneman that explores the two systems of thought that drive human decision-making. System one is fast, intuitive, and emotional. System two is slow, deliberative, and logical. The book provides readers with a greater understanding of how these two systems work and how they can be used to make better decisions.

If you’re looking for a book that will help you understand the science of decision-making, Thinking Fast and Slow is a great choice. The book is full of interesting case studies and real-world examples that illustrate how the two systems of thought operate. However, the book is dense and requires some effort to get through.

3. The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle

The Power of Now is a book by Eckhart Tolle that explores the concept of mindfulness. The book argues that living in the present moment is the key to happiness and peace.

If you’re looking for a title that will help you live in the present moment, The Power of Now is a great choice. The book is full of wisdom and insights that can help you negotiate the distracting and often compulsive nature of thoughts and emotions.

It might not be as evidence-based as some of the other recommendations on this list, but rather the material is borne from Eckhart’s personal experience.

It also draws significant parallels with aspects of Eastern Philosophy and the concept of mindfulness, which does have an emerging body of scientific evidence supporting its use.

4. Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl

Man’s Search for Meaning is a book by Viktor Frankl that explores the meaning of life. Whether it is working through a personal struggle or overcoming an obstacle, every person must come to their own understanding of what gives their life purpose and meaning.

Though this journey may be difficult at times, it can also be profoundly rewarding, leading us to gain a deeper sense of ourselves and our connection to the world around us.

Ultimately, there is no “right” path to finding meaning; rather, each individual must seek out their unique purpose and embrace it with passion and commitment.

5. Grit by Angela Duckworth

In her best-selling book, Grit, psychologist Angela Duckworth makes a compelling case for the power of grit. Citing examples from business, sports, and education, she argues that it’s the key to success.

Duckworth defines grit as “the combination of passion and perseverance.” Passion, she explains, is the deep-seated desire to achieve a particular goal. Perseverance is the ability to keep working towards that goal even when the going gets tough.

Duckworth argues that gritty people are more successful because they are able to maintain their focus and motivation over the long haul. While there may be setbacks along the way, they never lose sight of their ultimate goal. If you’re looking to achieve success in any area of your life, Duckworth’s book is essential reading.

Find the right self-help book for you

If you need help finding the right self-help book, check out the following resources on my site.

  • Self-help book summaries – where I distil the most important concepts of these books so you can apply the lessons immediately
  • Books recommendations – in this section of the site, I offer reading recommendations for the best books on a variety of personal development topics.

Summary – do self-help books work?

Self-help books can be useful resources in personal development, although evidence shows that bibliotherapy offers a better alternative to completely unsupervised reading.

Therefore, if in doubt, always consult a qualified professional for further recommendations.